• Yajing Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, Masaru Kojima, and Toshio Fukuda, “Single cell adhesion force measurement for cell viability identification by using AFM cantilever based micro putter”, Measurement Science and Technology, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 115802, 2011.
  • Yajing Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima, Zhan Yang, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma and Toshio Fukuda, “Design and characterization of nanoknife with buffering beam for in situ single cell cutting”, Nanotechnology, vol. 22, pp. 305701, 2011. 
  • Yajing Shen*, Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, Masahiro Nakajima, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma and Toshio Fukuda. "Evaluation of the single yeast cell adhesion to ITO substrates with various surface energies via ESEM Nanorobotic Manipulation System", IEEE Transaction on Nanobioscience, 10(4): 217-224, 2011. 
  • Yajing Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, and Toshio Fukuda, "Study of the time effect on the strength of cell-cell adhesion force by a novel nano-picker", Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication, 409(2): 160-165, 2011. 
  • Yajing Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima, Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, Seiji Kojima, Michio Homma, and Toshio Fukuda,  "Effect of ambient humidity on the strength of the adhesion force of single yeast cell inside environmental-SEM", Ultramicroscopy, 111(8): 1176-1183, 2011.
  • Toshio Fukuda, Masahiro Nakajima, Mohd Ridzuan Ahmad, Yajing Shen and Masaru Kojima. “Micro- and Nanomechatronics”. IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 4(4): 13-22, 2010.
  • Wanfeng Shang, Shengdun Zhao*, and Yajing Shen, “A flexible tolerance genetic algorithm for optimal problems with nonlinear equality constraints”, Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 253-264, 2009.
  • Wanfeng Shang, Shengdun Zhao, Yajing Shen and Ziming Qi, “A sliding mode flux-linkage controller with integral compensation for switched reluctance motor”,IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 3322-3328, 2009. 

Before 2013




  • Gen Li, Tieshan Zhang and Yajing Shen*. "Transparent Magnetic Soft Millirobot Actuated by Micro-Node Array". Advanced Materials Technologies, 2021. 
  • Panbing Wang, M.A.R.AI Azad, Xiong Yang, Paolo R. Martelli, Kam Yan Cheung, Jiahai Shi* and Yajing Shen*."Self-adaptive and efficient propulsion of Ray sperms at different viscosities enabled by heterogeneous dual helixes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(23) e2024329118, 2021.
  • Yuanyuan Yang and Yajing Shen*. "Light‐Driven Carbon‐Based Soft Materials: Principle, Robotization, and Application". Advanced Optical Materials, 2021.
  • Xiong Yang, Rong Tan, Haojian Lu and Yajing Shen*."Starfish Inspired Milli Soft Robot With Omnidirectional Adaptive Locomotion Ability". IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 6(2), 3325-3332, 2021.
  • ​Youcan Yan, Zhe Hu, Zhengbao Yang, Wenzhen Yuan, Chaoyang Song, Jia Pan* and Yajing Shen*. "Soft magnetic skin for super-resolution tactile sensing with force self-decoupling". Science Robotics, 2021.
  • Shudong Wang, Xueyong Wei* , Haojian Lu, Ziming Ren, Zhuangde Jiang, Juan Ren, Zhan Yang, Lining Sun, Wanfeng Shang, Xinyu Wu & Yajing Shen*,Robot-aided fN∙m torque sensing within an ultrawide dynamic range. Microsystems & Nanoengineering2021.
  • Yanting Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Xiong Yang, Liu Yang, Yajing Shen and Wanfeng Shang*. "Multi-Functionalized Micro Helical Capsule Robot with Superior Loading and Releasing Capabilities". Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 2021​.



  • Panbing Wang, Dengfeng Li, Shihui Shen, and Yajing Shen*​. "Auto Microwaveguide Coupling Based on Hybrid Position and Light Intensity Feedback", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 24(3), pp.1166-1175, 2019.

  • Haojian Lu, Yanting Liu, Yuanyuan Yang, Xiong Yang, Rong Tanand Yajing Shen*. "Self-Assembly Magnetic Chain Unit for Bulk Biomaterial Actuation". IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2(4), pp. 262-268, 2019.

  • Yuanyuan Yang, Dengfeng Li, and Yajing Shen*. "Inchworm-inspired Soft Robot with Light Actuated Locomotion",  IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters, 2(4), pp. 1647-1652, 2019.

  • Wang, Panbing, Haojian Lu, and Yajing Shen*. "Flexible 3D Helix Fabrication by In-situ SEM Micro Manipulation System", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 2019.

  • Yongbing Wen, Haojian Lu, Yajing Shen* and Hui Xie*. "Nanorobotic Manipulation System for 360° Characterization Atomic Force Microscopy", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 67(4), pp. 2916-2924, 2019.

  • Yang Liu, Cong Wu, Haojian Lu, Yuanyuan Yang, Wenjung Li and Yajing Shen*, "Programmable higher-order biofabrication of self-locking microencapsulation", Biofabrication, 11, 035019, 2019. 

  • Yang Liu, Gen Li, Haojian Lu, Yuanyuan Yang, Zeyang Liu, Wanfeng Shang & Yajing Shen*. "Magnetically Actuated Heterogeneous Microcapsule-robot for Construction of 3D Bioartificial Architectures", ACS applied materials & interfaces, 11(29), pp. 25664-25673, 2019.

  • Yanting Liu, Yuanyuan Yang and Yajing Shen*. "Tubular Microcapsule with Polysaccharide Membrane based on Co-axial Microfluidic Chip", ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 5(11), pp. 6281-6289, 2019.

  • Weili Ding, Yanxin Zhang, Haojian Lu, Wenfeng Wan and Yajing Shen*. "Automatic 3D reconstruction of SEM images based on Nano-robotic manipulation and epipolar plane images", Ultramicroscopy, 200, pp. 149-159, 2019.

  • ​Haojian Lu, Yongbing Wen, Hao Zhang, Hui Xie* and Yajing Shen*, "360° multiparametric imaging atomic force microscopy: a method for three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping", Ultramicroscopy, 196, pp. 83-87, 2019.​​

  • Yuanyuan Yang, Mei Zhang, Dengfeng Li, Yajing Shen*, "Graphene-Based Light-Driven Soft Robot with Snake-Inspired Concertina and Serpentine Locomotion", Advanced Materials Technologies, 4(1), 1800366, 2019.

  • Haojian Lu, Yuanyuan Yang, Xudong Lin, Peng Shi and Yajing Shen*. "Low-invasive Cell Injection based on Rotational Microrobot", Advanced Biosystems, 1800274, 2019.[Cover]

  • ​Fan, S., Jiang, C., Lu, H., Li, F., Yang, Y.*, Shen, Y.*, & Lu, Y*. "In situ micromechanical characterization of metallic glass microwires under torsional loading", Experimental Mechanics, 59(3), pp. 361-368, 2019.



  • Wenfeng Wan, Haojian Lu, Valentina Zhukova, Mihail Ipatov, Arcady Zhukov, and Yajing Shen*, "Surface defect detection of magnetic microwires by miniature rotatable robot inside SEM", AIP Advances, 6 (095309), 2016.

  • Gaole ​​​​Dai, Binjun Wang, Shang Xu, Yang Lu* and Yajing Shen*, "Side-to-side Cold Welding for Controllable Nanogap Formation from 'Dumbbell' Ultrathin Gold Nanorods", ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (21), pp. 13506–13511, 2016.

  • Gaole Dai, Wenfeng Wan, Yuliang Zhao, Zixun Wang, Wenjun Li, Peng Shi, and Yajing Shen*, "Controllable 3D alginate hydrogel patterning via visible-light induced electrodeposition", Biofabrication, 8(2), 025004, 2016. 

  • Wanfeng Shang, Haojian Lu, Wenfeng Wan, Toshio Fukuda and Yajing Shen*, "Vision-based Nano Robotic System for High-throughput Non-embedded Cell Cutting", Scientific Reports, 6 (22534), 2016.


  • Xiong Yang, Wanfeng Shang, Haojian Lu, Yanting Liu, Liu Yang, Rong Tan, Xinyu Wu* and Yajing Shen*. "An agglutinate magnetic spray transforms inanimate objects into millirobots for biomedical applications". Science Robotics, 2020.

          ​(Social media:                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Syfy Wire, "Amazing Magnetic Spray Turns Tiny Inanimate Objects into Insect-Scale Robots"   

          2. Sing Tao Daily, "城大神奇噴霧 助藥物穿梭人體"                                                                                                                                                 3. Ta Kung Pao, "城大研磁性噴霧 體內傳輸藥物 "                                                                                                                                                  4. Wen Wei Po, "城大神奇噴霧 磁控傳藥話咁易"                                                                                                                                                    5. BBC, "Magnetic spray could aid drug delivery and other news"                                                                                                              6. Ruptly, "Hong Kong: Scientists develop 'magnetic spray' that turns objects into millirobots​"                                                            7.  Headline News, "城大研發磁性噴霧令物件變微型機械人 助人體內輸送藥物"                                                                                                      8. HK01, "城大研發磁性噴霧控制膠囊等藥物 盼未來能在人體中應用"                                                                                           

          9. Hong Kong Commercial Daily​, "城大研「神奇」噴霧 令物件變身微型機械人 可於活體內傳輸藥物"   

          10. on.cc​, "城大研發磁性噴霧令物件變微型機械人 助精準傳輸藥物"                                                                                                          

          11. TOPick, "城大研發磁性噴霧 可用磁石引導藥丸於生物體內移動"               

          12. Hackster.io, "Clever Spray Turns Inanimate Objects Into Biocompatible Millirobots, Activated by a Magnetic Field

          13. Sputnik, "Mili-Robots by Hong Kong Scientists Can Deliver Drugs Through Human Body"          

          14. Tmt post, "中国科学家的这项发明,可以快速“制造”毫米级机器人"          

          15. SciTechDaily, "New Magnetic Spray Transforms Objects Into Insect-Scale Robots for Biomedical Applications"          

          16. New Scientist, "Magnetic spray turns objects into mini robots that can deliver drugs"    MORE)         

  • ​Yuanyuan Yang, Yanting Liu, and Yajing Shen*. "Plasmonic-Enhanced Graphene Oxide-Based Aquatic Robot for Target Cargo Delivery." ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces (2020).
  • Shudong Wang, Weilong Zhu, Yajing Shen, Juan Ren, Hairong Gu, Xueyong Wei*. "Temperature compensation for MEMS resonant accelerometer based on genetic algorithm optimized backpropagation neural network". Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 316,(2020) 112393.
  • ​​Tieshan Zhang , Liu Yang , Xiong Yang , Rong Tan , Haojian Lu* and Yajing Shen*. "Millimeter‐Scale Soft Continuum Robots for Large‐Angle and High‐Precision Manipulation by Hybrid Actuation". Advanced Intelligent Systems, 2020. 
  • Dengfeng Li, Chao Liu, Yuangyuan Yang, Lidai Wang* and Yajing Shen*. "Micro-rocket robot with all optic actuating and tracking in the blood". Light: Science & Applications 9(1), 1-10. 
  • ​Haojian Lu, Ying Hong, Yuanyuan Yang, Zhengbao Yang* and Yajing Shen*. "Battery-less soft millirobot that can move, sense, and communicate remotely by coupling the magnetic and piezoelectric effects", Advanced Science, 7(13), 2020, 2000069.
  • Yuanyuan Yang, Yanting Liu, and Yajing Shen*. "Plasmonic‐Assisted Graphene Oxide Films with Enhanced Photothermal Actuation for Soft Robots",  Advanced Functional Materials, 30(14), 1910172, 2020.
  • Yajing ​Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima, Zhan Yang, Hirotaka Tajima, Zoran Najdovski, Michio Homma and Toshio Fukuda, "Single cell stiffness measurement at various humidity conditions by nanomanipulation of a nano-needle", Nanotechnology, 24, 145703, 2013.
  • Chengzhi ​Hu*, Tercero Carlos, Ikeda Seiichi, Nakajima Masahiro, Tajima Hirotaka, Yajing Shen, Toshio Fukuda and Fumihito Arai, "Biodegradable porous sheet-like scaffolds for soft-tissue engineering using a combined particulate leaching of salt particles and magnetic sugar particles", Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 166 (1), pp. 126 - 131, 2013.
  • Panbing Wang, Haojian Lu, Shihui Shen, Wanfeng Shang, Lijun Zhang, Jianhua Wang, and Yajing Shen*, "Micro-robotic Manipulation at Time-varying Air-liquid Interface for High-precise Watch-hand Alignment", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 22 (6), 2017.
  • Wenfeng Wan, Haojian Lu, Shihui Shen, Yajing Shen*, "Effect of alignment angle on the alignment accuracy of a miniature rotation robot for microscopy imaging", International Journal of Advanced Robotic Systems, 14 (3), 2017.
  • Haojian Lu, Wanfeng Shang, Xueyong Wei, Zhan Yang, Toshio Fukuda, and Yajing Shen*, "Nanorobotic System iTRo for Controllable 1D Micro/nano Material Twisting Test", Scientific Reports, 7 (3077), 2017.
  • Wanfeng Shang, Yanting Liu, Wenfeng Wan, Chengzhi Hu, Zeyang Liu, Chin To Wong, Toshio Fukuda, and Yajing Shen*, "Hybrid 3D printing and electrodeposition approach for controllable 3D alginate hydrogel formation", Biofabrication, 9 (2), 2017.
  • Wanfeng Shang, Dengfeng Li, Haojian Lu, Toshio Fukuda, and Yajing Shen*, "Less-invasive Non-embedded Cell Cutting by Nanomanipulation and Vibrating Nanoknife", Applied Physics Letters, 110 (043701), 2017.
  • Yajing Shen*, Wenfeng Wan, Haojian Lu, Toshio Fukuda, and Wanfeng Shang, "Automatic Sample Alignment under Microscopy for 360o Imaging based on Nanorobotic Manipulation System," IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 33(1), pp. 220-226, 2017.
  • ​Dengfeng Li, Lijun yang, Wanfeng Shang, Haojian Lu, Wenfeng Wan, Yajing Shen*. "In situ bending and recovery characterization of hollow glass nanoneedle based on nanorobotic manipulation", Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 27(9), 095011, 2018.


Selected Publications (Full list is available at GoogleScholar)



Book & Book Chapter

Nano-robotic Manipulation and Bio-assembly Laboratory​​

  • Yajing Shen* and Toshio Fukuda, "State of the art: micro-nanorobotic manipulation in single cell analysis", Robotics and Biomimetics, 1 (21), 2014. ​
  •  Jingjing ​Bao, Zhan Yang*, Masahiro Nakajima, Yajing Shen, Masaru Takeuchi, Qiang Huang and Toshio Fukuda, "Self-Actuating Asymmetric Platinum Catalytic Mobile Nanorobot", IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 30 (1), 33 - 39, 2014.
  • 用於微納尺度材料的原位扭矩測試裝置和觀察裝置, CN 201610079194.8
  • 一種高頻疲勞測試裝置和微觀形貌觀察裝置,CN 201610079340.7
  • Yajing Shen*, Wenfeng Wan, Yong Li, Haojian Lu and Weili Ding*, "Multidirectional Image Sensing for Microscopy Based on a Rotatable Robot", Sensors, 15, 2015. 
  • Wenfeng Wan, Gaole Dai, Lijun Zhang and Yajing Shen*, "Paper-Based Electrodeposition Chip for 3D Alginate Hydrogel Formation", Micromachines, 2015. 
  • Yajing Shen*, Zhenhai Zhang, and Toshio Fukuda, "Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection", Nanotechnology, 26 (15), p155702, 2015. 
  • Yajing Shen*, Masahiro Nakajima , Zhenhai Zhang and Toshio Fukuda , "Dynamic Force Characterization Microscopy Based on Integrated Nanorobotic AFM and SEM System for Detachment Process Study", IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 20 (6), pp. 3009 - 3017, 2015. 
  • Yajing Shen*, "Effect of the Tip Size on AFM Cantilever Based Force Sensor",Journal of Sensors, 926594, pp. 1 - 8, 2015. 
  • Zhenhai Zhang, Zhiguo Shi, Zhan Yang, Zhihong Xie, Donghong Zhang, De Cai, Kejie Li, and Yajing Shen*, "Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Triaxial MEMS High Shock Accelerometer", Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 15 (4), pp. 2952 - 2957, 2015.